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Buddhist Dictionary

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14/07/2011 20:27 (GMT+7)
Kích cỡ chữ:  Giảm Tăng


lahutá: 'lightness', or 'agility', may be of 3 kinds: of corporeality (rúpassa lahutá; s. khandha, I ), of mental factors (káya-lahutá), and of consciousness (citta-lahutá). Cf. Tab. II.

lakkhana: 'characteristics'. For the 3 ch. of existence, s. ti-lakkhana.

law: dhamma (q.v.).

learning, wisdom based on: s. paññá.

liberality: dána (q.v.), cága (q.v.).

liberation: s. vimokkha.

life-infatuation: s. mada.

light, perception of: s. áloka-saññá.

light-kasina: s. kasina.

lightness (of corporeality, mental factors and consciousness): lahutá (q.v.).

loathsomeness (of the body): s. asubha, sivathiká, káyagatásati.

lobha: 'greed', is one of the 3 unwholesome roots (múla, q.v.) and a synonym of rága (q.v.) and tanhá (q.v.).

lobha-carita: 'greedy-natured', s. carita.

lofty consciousness: s. sobhana.

lohita-kasina: 'red-kasina', s. kasina.

loka: 'world', denotes the 3 spheres of existence comprising the whole universe, i.e. (1) the sensuous world (káma-loka), or the world of the 5 senses; (2) the fine-material world (rúpa-loka), corresponding to the 4 fine-material absorptions (s. jhána 1-4); (3) the immaterial world (arúpa-loka), corresponding to the 4 immaterial absorptions (s. jhána, 5-8).

The sensuous world comprises the hells (niraya), the animal kingdom (tiracchána-yoni), the ghost-realm (peta-loka), the demon world (asura-nikáya), the human world (manussa-loka) and the 6 lower celestial worlds (s. deva I). In the fine-material world (s. deva II) still exist the faculties of seeing and hearing, which, together with the other sense faculties, are temporarily suspended in the 4 absorptions. In the immaterial world (s. deva III) there is no corporeality whatsoever, only the four mental groups (s. khandha) exist there.

Though the term loka is not applied in the Suttas to those 3 worlds, but only the term bhava, 'existence' (e.g. M. 43), there is no doubt that the teaching about the 3 worlds belongs to the earliest, i.e. sutta-period, of the Buddhist scriptures, as many relevant passages show.

loka-dhamma: 'worldly conditions'. "Eight things are called worldly conditions, since they arise in connection with worldly life, namely: gain and loss, honour and dishonour, happiness and misery, praise and blame" (Vis.M. XXII). Cf. also A. VIII, 5.

lokiya: 'mundane', are all those states of consciousness and mental factors - arising in the worldling, as well as in the Noble One - which are not associated with the supermundane (lokuttara; s. the foll.) paths and fruitions of sotápatti, etc. See ariyapuggala, A.

lokuttara: 'supermundane', is a term for the 4 paths and 4 fruitions of sotápatti, etc. (s. ariya-puggala), with Nibbána as ninth. Hence one speaks of '9 supermundane things' (nava-lokuttara-dhamma). Cf. prec.

loving-kindness: mettá; s. brahmavihára.

lower fetters, the 5: s. samyojana.

lower worlds, the 4: apáya (q.v.).

low speech: tiracchána-kathá (q.v.).

lust: s. rága.

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