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English-Pali Dictionary

14/07/2011 20:07 (GMT+7)
Kích cỡ chữ:  Giảm Tăng

English-Pali Dictionary
by Metta Net, Sri Lanka


Dictionary Information

This dictionary is provided to this website by courtesy of the people who created it and worked on it. Its original form is a program stored at Metta Net, http://www.metta.lk/ , who allowed this dictionary to be posted here.

Note that the dictionary is copyrighted. It is provided for free distribution on a non-profit, non-commercial basis. This dictionary is based on the Concise Pali-English and English-Pali Dictionary by Venerable A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera. It is a dictionary for beginners to help one get started on learning Pali and then move on to more comprehensive dictionaries.

Below is the list of people who created and worked on it:

-- Phra Acan Sau of Malaysia, Ven. Rahula of Nepal, Ven. Dhammapala of Malaysia, Ven. Dhamma Jyoti of India, Ven. Mon Dhammadinna of Myanmar, Ven. Sao Suvan of Myanmar, Phra Maha Anucha of Thailand, Phra Maha Phichit of Thailand, Phra En Piang of Malaysia, Ven. Kolita of Nepal, Ven. Saddhatissa of Nepal, Ven. Phuntsok of India, Ven. Sheelaratna of India, Ven. Sao Sutananda of Myanmar, Ven. Sao Sukhaminda of Myanmar, Ven. Sao Aggavamsa of Myanmar, Ven. Sao K.H. Nyaninda of Myanmar, Ven. Sao Pannavamsa of Myanmar, Ven. Ashin Manijoti of Myanmar, Ven. Sao Pannananda of Myanmar, Ven. Sao Indobhasa of Myanmar, Ven. Indasilo of Indonesia and Indika Rohan Peiris.

Please note: VU-Times font (Unicode) is used in this Dictionary

-ooOoo-

Alphabet and Pronunciation

Alphabet:

The Pāḷi alphabet consist of 41 letters: 8 vowels, the niggahīta (), and 32 consonants.

Vowels: a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o
Niggahīta:
Consonants: k, kh, g, gh, ṅ, c, ch, j, jh, ñ, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh, m, y, r, l, ḷ, v, s, h

Pronunciation: (pronounced similar to the example)

a as in but, hut; a in banana
ā as in father, cart, heart
i as in bit, tip, it
ī as in machine, keen, clean
u as in put, foot, push
ū as in rude, boot, youth
e as in way, fade, cape (long always except before a double consonant in which it is short - as in bed, bet, head)
o as in home, bone, know (long always except before a double consonant in which it is short as in not, saw, all)
   
as or m - pure nasal without release through the mouth (It is most characteristically stated as a humming sound produced when the vocal cords are vibrating and the air is emitted through the nose only. There are two prominent pronunciations which depends on the community).
   
k as in skin, cook, candle
kh as in king, backhand
g as in girl, good, gift
gh as in log-head, big-house
as in sing, finger, ink
c as in choose, chin, discharge
ch as in ranch-house, ranch-hand
j as in jug, gem, judge
jh as in hedge-hog
ñ as Spanish señor
as t but with the tongue tip curled back just under the hard palate (retroflection)
ṭh as th but with the tongue tip curled back just under the hard palate (retroflection)
as d but with the tongue tip curled back just under the hard palate (retroflection)
ḍh as dh but with the tongue tip curled back just under the hard palate (retroflection)
as n but with the tongue tip curled back just under the hard palate (retroflection)
t as in stay, stand (but with the rip of the tongue at the back of the teeth)
th as in light-house, ant-hill (but with the rip of the tongue at the back of the teeth)
d as in dog, dirt, door (but with the rip of the tongue at the back of the teeth)
dh as in mad-house, red-house (but with the rip of the tongue at the back of the teeth)
n as in name, north, no (but with the rip of the tongue at the back of the teeth)
p as in space, spend
ph as in top-hat, upheavel, uphill
b as in bag, born, bed
bh as in lab-host, rub-hard
m as in him, mother, map
y as in yes, year, you
r as in ram, ring, roam (pronounced smoothy and similar to english r, retroflex prositioning)
l as in lamp, light
same as l but with the tongue tip curled back just under the hard palate (retroflection)
v a labiodental approximant, a sort of in-between the english v and w.
s as in sit, story, smoke
h as in inherent, voiced fricative

* the digraphs dh, etc., are to be taken as single sounds, the h representing aspiration - double consonants are pronounced seperately the first having no release): example - dd in mad dog, gg in big game, etc., or pronounced long: example - nn in unnecessary

-ooOoo-

Source: http://www.buddhanet.net

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