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pabbajjá: lit. 'the going forth', or more fully stated, 'the going forth from home to the homeless life' of a monk (agárasmá anagáriyam pabbajjá), consists in severing all family and social ties to live the pure life of a monk, in order to realize the goal of final deliverance pointed out by the Enlightened One. Thus, p. has become the name for admission as a sámanera, or novice, i.e. as a candidate for the Order of Bhikkhus, or monks.

See Going Fonh, by Sumana Samanera (WHEEL 27/28) - Ordination in Theraváda Buddhism (WHEEL 56).

paccavekkhana-ñána: 'retrospective knowledge', refers to the recollected mental image obtained in concentration, or to any inner experience just passed, as for instance, any absorption (jhána q.v.), or any supermundane path, or fruition of the path, etc. (s. ariya-puggala). As it is said: "At the end of fruitional consciousness, consciousness sinks into the subconscious stream of existence (bhavanga-sota, q.v.). Then, breaking off the stream of existence, mental advertence (manodvárávajjana) arises at the mind-door, for the purpose of retrospecting the (just passed) path-moment. Now, as soon as this stage has passed, 7 moments of impulsive consciousness (javana-citta), one after the other, flash up while retrospecting the path. After they again have sunk into the subconscious stream, there arise, for the purpose of retrospecting the fruition of the path the moments of advertence and impulsion, during whose arising the monk is retrospecting the path, retrospecting the fruition, retrospecting the abandoned defilements, retrospecting the still remaining defilements, retrospecting Nibbána as object .... 'This blessing have I attained' .... 'This and that defilement still remains in me' .... 'This object have I beheld in my mind', etc." (Vis.M. XXII).

paccavekkhana-suddhi: 'purity of reflection', is a name for wise consideration in using the 4 requisites allowed to the monk, i.e. robes, food, dwelling, and medicine; s. síla (4).

paccaya: 'condition', is something on which something else, the so-called 'conditioned thing', is dependent, and without which the latter cannot be. Manifold are the ways in which one thing, or one occurrence, may be the condition for some other thing, or occurrence. In the Patthána, the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka (comprising 6 large vols. in the Siamese edition), these 24 modes of conditionality are enumerated and explained, and then applied to all conceivable mental and physical phenomena and occurrences, and thus their conditioned nature is demonstrated.

The first two volumes of the Patthána have been translated into English by the Venerable U Nárada (Múlapatthána Sayadaw) of Burma, under the title Conditional Relations (Published by the Páli Text Society, London 1969, 1981). For a synopsis of this work, see Guide VII.

The 24 modes of conditionality are:


1. Root condition : hetu paccaya

2. Object " : árammana "

3. Predominance " : adhipati "

4. Priority " : anantara "

5. Contiguity " : samanantara "

6. Co-nascence " : sahajáta "

7. Mutuality " : aññamañña "

8. Support " : nissaya "

9. Decisive Support " : upanissaya "

10. Pre-nascene " : purejáta "

11. Post-nascene " : pacchájáta "

12. Repitition " : ásevana "

13. Karma " : kamma "

14. Karma-result " : vipáka "

15. Nutriment " : áhára "

16. Faculty " : indriya "

17. Jhána " : jhána "

18. Path " : magga "

19. Associaton " : sampayutta "

20. Dissociation " : vippayutta "

21. Presence " : atthi "

22. Absence " : natthi "

23. Disappearance " : vigata "

24. Non-disappearance " : avigata "


(1) Root-condition (hetu-paccaya) is that condition that resembles the root of a tree. Just as a tree rests on its root, and remains alive only as long as its root is not destroyed, similarly all karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental states are entirely dependent on the simultaneity and presence of their respective roots, i.e, of greed (lobha), hate (dosa), delusion (moha), or greedlessness (alobha), hatelessness (adosa), undeludedness (amoha). For the definition of these 6 roots, s. múla.

"The roots are a condition by way of root for the (mental) phenomena associated with a root, and for the corporeal phenomena produced thereby (e.g. for bodily expression)" (Patth).

(2) Object-condition (árammana-paccaya) is called something which, as object, forms the condition for consciousness and mental phenomena. Thus, the physical object of sight consisting in colour and light ('light-wave'), is the necessary condition and the sine qua non for the arising of eye-consciousness (cakkhu-viññána), etc.; sound ('sound wave') for ear-consciousness (sotá-viññána), etc.; further, any object arising in the mind is the condition for mind-consciousness (mano-viññána). The mind-object may be anything whatever, corporeal or mental, past, present or future, real or imaginary.

(3) Predominance-condition (adhipati-paccaya) is the term for 4 things, on the preponderance and predominance of which are dependent the mental phenomena associated with them, namely: concentrated intention (chanda, q.v.), energy (viriya, q.v.), consciousness (citta) and investigation (vímamsá). In one and the same state of consciousness, however, only one of these 4 phenomena can be predominant at a time. "Whenever such phenomena as consciousness and mental concomitants are arising by giving preponderance to one of these 4 things, then this phenomenon is for the other phenomena a condition by way of predominance" (Patth.). Cf. iddhi-páda.

(4-5) Proximity and contiguity (or immediacy)-condition (anantara and samanantara-paccaya) - both being identical - refer to any state of consciousness and mental phenomena associated with them, which are the conditions for the immediately following stage in the process of consciousness. For example, in the visual process, eye-consciousness is for the immediately following mindelement - performing the function of receiving the visible object - a condition by way of contiguity; and so is this mind-element for the next following mind-consciousness element, performing the function of investigating the object, etc. Cf. viññána-kicca.

(6) Co-nascence condjtion (sahajáta-paccaya), i.e. condition by way of simultaneous arising, is a phenomenon that for another one forms, a condition in such a way that, simultaneously with its arising, also the other thing must arise. Thus, for instance, in one and the same moment each of the 4 mental groups (feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness) is for the 3 other groups a condition by way of co-nascence or co-arising; or again each of the 4 physical elements (solid, liquid, heat, motion) is such a condition for the other 3 elements. Only at the moment of conception in the mother's womb does corporeality (physical base of mind) serve for the 4 mental groups as a condition by way of conascence.

(7) Condition by way of mutuality (aññámañña-paccaya). All the just mentioned associated and co-nascent mental phenomena, as well as the 4 physical elements, are, of course, at the same time also conditioned by way of mutuality, "just like three sticks propped up one by another." The 4 mental groups are one for another a condition by way of mutuality. So also are the 4 elements, and also mentality and corporeality at the moment of conception.

(8) Support-condition (nissaya-paccaya). This condition refers either to a pre-nascent (s. 10) or co-nascent (s. 6) phenomenon which is aiding other phenomena in the manner of a foundation or base, just as the trees have the earth as their foundation, or as the oil-painting rests on the canvas. In this way, the 5 sense-organs and the physical base of the mind are for the corresponding 6 kinds of consciousness a prenascent, i.e. previously arisen, condition by way of support. Further all co-nascent (s. 6) phenomena are mutually (s. 7) conditioned by each other by way of support.

(9) Decisive-support (or inducement) condition (upanissaya-paccaya) is threefold, namely (a) by way of object (árammanúpanissaya-paccaya), (b) by way of proximity (anantarúpanissaya), (c) natural decisive support (pakatupanissaya). These conditions act as strong inducement or cogent reason.

(a) Anything past, present or future, corporeal or mental, real or imaginary, may, as object of our thinking, become a decisive support, or strong inducement, to moral, immoral or karmically neutral states of mind. Evil things, by wrong thinking about them, become an inducement to immoral life; by right thinking, an inducement to moral life. But good things may be an inducement not only to similarly good things, but also to bad things, such as self-conceit, vanity, envy, etc.

(b;) is identical with proximity condition (No. 4).

(c) Faith, virtue, etc., produced in one's own mind, or the influence of climate, food, etc., on one's body and mind, may act as natural and decisive support-conditions. Faith may be a direct and natural inducement to charity, virtue to mental training, etc.; greed to theft, hate to murder; unsuitable food and climate to ill-health; friends to spiritual progress or deterioration.

(10) Pre-nascence-condition (purejáta-paccaya) refers to something previously arisen, which forms a base for something arising later on. For example, the 5 physical sense-organs and the physical base of mind, having already arisen at the time of birth, form the condition for the consciousness arising later, and for the mental phenomena associated therewith.

(11) Post-nascence-condition (pacchá-játa-paccaya) refers to consciousness and the phenomena therewith associated, because they are - just as is the feeling of hunger- a necessary condition for the preservation of this already arisen body.

(12) Repetition-condition (ásevana-paccaya) refers to the karmical consciousness, in which each time the preceding impulsive moments (javana-citta, q.v.) are for all the succeeding ones a condition by way of repetition and frequency, just as in learning by heart, through constant repetition, the later recitation becomes gradually easier and easier.

(13) Karma-condition (kamma-paccaya). The pre-natal karma (i.e karma-volitions, kamma-cetaná, in a previous birth) is the generating condition (cause) of the 5 sense-organs, the fivefold sense-consciousness, and the other karma-produced mental and corporeal phenomena in a later birth. - Karmical volition is also a condition by way of karma for the co-nascent mental phenomena associated therewith, but these phenomena are in no way karma-results.

(14) Karma-result-condition (vipáka-paccaya). The karma-resultant 5 kinds of sense-consciousness are a condition by way of karma-result for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.

(15) Nutriment-condition (áhára-paccaya). For the 4 nutriments, s. áhára.

(16) Faculty-condition (indriya-paccaya). This condition applies to 20 faculties (indriya, q.v.), leaving out No. 7 and 8 from the 22 faculties. Of these 20 faculties, the 5 physical sense-organs (1 - 5), in their capacity as faculties, form a condition only for uncorporeal phenomena (eye-consciousness etc.); physical vitality (6) and all the remaining faculties, for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.

(17) Jhána-condition (jhána-paccaya) is a name for the 7 so-called jhána-factors, as these form a condition to the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena, to wit: (1) thought-conception (vitakka), (2) discursive thinking (vicára), (3) interest (píti), (4) joy (sukha), (5) sadness (domanassa), (6) indifference (upekkhá), (7) concentration (samádhi). (For definition s. Páli terms. )

1, 2, 3, 4, 7 are found in 4 classes of greedy consciousness (s. Tab. I. 22-25); 1, 2, 5, 7 in hateful consciousness (ib. 30, 31); 1, 2, 6, 7 in the classes of deluded consciousness (ib. 32, 33).

This condition does not only apply to jhána alone, but also to the general intensifying ('absorbing') impact of these 7 factors.

(18) Path-condition (magga-paccaya) refers to the 12 path-factors, as these are for the karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental phenomena associated with them, a way of escape from this or that mental constitution, namely: (1) knowledge (paññá = sammáditthi, right understanding), (2) (right or wrong) thought-conception (vitakka), (3) right speech (sammá-vácá), (4) right bodily action (sammá-kammanta), (5) right livelihood (sammá-ájíva), (6) (right or wrong) energy (viriya), (7) (right or wrong) mindfulness (sati), (8) (right or wrong) concentration (samádhi), (9) wrong views (miccháditthi), (10) wrong speech (micchá-vácá), (11) wrong bodily action (micchá-kammanta), (12) wrong livelihood (micchá-ájíva). Cf. magga.

(19) Association-condition (sampayutta-paccaya) refers to the co-nascent (s. 6) and mutually (s. 7) conditioned 4 mental groups (khandha), "as they aid each other by their being associated, by having a common physical base, a common object, and by their arising and disappearing simultaneously" (Patth. Com.).

(20) Dissociation-condition (vippayutta-paccaya) refers to such phenomena as aid other phenomena by not baving the same physical base (eye, etc.) and objects. Thus corporeal phenomena are for mental phenomena, and conversely, a condition by way of dissociation, whether co-nascent or not.

(2l) Presence-condition (atthi-paccaya) refers to a phenomenon - being pre-nascent or co-nascent - which through its presence is a condition for other phenomena. This condition applies to the conditions Nos. 6, 7, 8, 10, 11.

(22) Absence-condition (natthi-paccaya) refers to consciousness, etc., which has just passed, and which thus forms the necessary condition for the immediately following stage of consciousness by giving it an opportunity to arise. Cf. No. 4.

(23) Disappearance-condition (vigata-paccaya) is identical with No. 22.

(24) Non-disappearance-condition (avigata-paccaya) is identical with No. 21.

These 24 conditions should be known thoroughly for a detailed understanding of that famous formula of the dependent origination (paticcasamuppáda, q.v.). Cf. Fund. III, Guide p. 117 ff. (App.) .

See The Significance of Dependent Origination, by Nyanatiloka (WHEEL 140).

paccaya-sannissita-síla: 'morality consisting in the wise use of the monk's requisities'; s. síla (4).

pacceka-bodhi: 'independent enlightenment'; s. the foll. and bodhi.

pacceka-buddha: an 'Independently Enlightened One'; or Separately or Individually (=pacceka) Enlightened One (renderings by 'Silent' or 'Private Buddha' are not very apt). This is a term for an Arahat (s. ariya-puggala) who has realized Nibbána without having heard the Buddha's doctrine from others. He comprehends the 4 Noble Truths individually (pacceka), independent of any teacher, by his own effort. He has, however, not the capacity to proclaim the Teaching effectively to others, and therefore does not become a 'Teacher of Gods and Men', a Perfect or Universal Buddha (sammá-sambuddha). - Paccekabuddhas are described as frugal of speech, cherishing solitude. According to tradition, they do not arise while the Teaching of a Perfect Buddha is known; but for achieving their rank after many aeons of effort, they have to utter an aspiration before a Perfect Buddha.

Canonical references are few; Pug. 29 (defin.); A. II, 56; in M. 116, names of many Paccekabuddhas are given; in D. 16 they are said to be worthy of a thúpa (dagoba); the Treasure-Store Sutta (Nidhikhandha Sutta, Khp.) mentions pacceka-bodhi; the C. Nidd. ascribes to individual Paccekabuddhas the verses of the Rhinoceros Sutta (Khaggavisána Sutta, Sn.) - See bodhi.

See The Paccekabuddha, by Ria Kloppenborg (WHEEL 305/307).

pacchájáta-paccaya: 'post-nascence-condition', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

pádaka-jjhána: 'foundation-forming absorption', is an absorption used as a foundation, or starting point, for the higher spiritual powers (abhiññá, q.v.), or for insight (vipassaná, q.v.), leading to the supermundane paths (s. ariya-puggala). The foundation for the former is the 4th absorption; for insight, however, any absorption is suitable. For details, s. samatha-vipassaná. - (App.).

pada-parama: 'one for whom the words are the utmost attainment'. "Whoever, though having learned much, speaking much, knowing many things by heart, and discoursing much, has not penetrated the truth, such a man is called by that name" (Pug. 163).

padhána: 'effort.' The 4 right efforts (samma-padhána), forming the 6th stage of the 8-fold Path (i.e. sammá-váyáma, s. magga) are: (1) the effort to avoid (samvara-padhána), (2) to overcome (pahána-padhána), (3) to develop (bhávaná-padhána), (4) to maintain (anurakkhana-padhána), i.e. (1) the effort to avoid unwholesome (akusala) states, such as evil thoughts, etc. (2) to overcome unwholesome states, (3) to develop wholesome (kusala) states, such as the 7 elements of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), (4) to maintain the wholesome states.

"The monk rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, unwholesome things not yet arisen ... to overcome them ... to develop wholesome things not yet arisen ... to maintain them, and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development. And he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives" (A. IV, 13).

(1) "What now, o monks, is the effort to avoid? Perceiving a form, or a sound, or an odour, or a taste, or a bodily or mental impression, the monk neither adheres to the whole nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and unwholesome things might arise, such as greed and sorrow, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses. This is called the effort to avoid.

(2) "What now is the effort to overcome? The monk does not retain any thought of sensual lust, or any other evil, unwholesome states that may have arisen; he abandons them, dispels them, destroys them, causes them to disappear. This is called the effort to overcome.

(3) "What now is the effort to develop? The monk develops the factors of enlightenment, bent on solitude, on detachment, on extinction, and ending in deliverance, namely: mindfulness (sati), investigation of the law (dhamma-vicaya), energy (viriya), rapture (píti), tranquillity (passaddhi), concentraton (samádhi), equanimity (upekkhá). This is called the effort to develop.

(4) "What now is the effort to maintain? The monk keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration, such as the mental image of a skeleton, a corpse infested by worms, a corpse blueblack in colour, a festering corpse, a corpse riddled with holes, a corpse swollen up. This is called the effort to maintain" (A. IV, 14).

padhániyanga: 'elements of effort', are the following 5 qualities: faith, health, sincerity, energy, and wisdom (M. 85, 90; A. V. 53). See párisuddhi-padhániyanga.

páguññatá: 'proficiency', namely, of mental concomitants (káya-páguññatá), and of consciousness (citta-páguññatá), are 2 mental phenomena associated with all wholesome consciousness. Cf. Tab. II.

pahána: 'overcoming', abandoning. There are 5 kinds of overcoming: (1) overcoming by repression (vikkhambhana-pahána), i.e. the temporary suspension of the 5 hindrances (nívarana, q.v.) during the absorptions, (2) overcoming by the opposite (tadanga-pahána), (3) overcoming by destruction (samuccheda-pahána), (4) overcoming by tranquillization (patipassaddhi-pahána), (5) overcoming by escape (nissarana-pahána).

(1) "Among these, 'overcoming by repression' is the pushing back of adverse things, such as the 5 mental hindrances (nívarana q.v), etc., through this or that mental concentration (samádhi, q.v.), just as a pot thrown into moss-clad water pushes the moss aside....

(2) " 'Overcoming by the opposite' is the overcoming by opposing this or that thing that is to be overcome, by this or that factor of knowledge belonging to insight (vipassaná q.v.), just as a lighted lamp dispels the darkness of the night. In this way, the personality-belief (sakkáyaditthi, s. ditthi) is overcome by determining the mental and corporeal phenomena ... the view of uncausedness of existence by investigation into the conditions... the idea of eternity by contemplation of impermanency ... the idea of happiness by contemplation of misery....

(3) "If through the knowledge of the noble path (s. ariyapuggala) the fetters and other evil things cannot continue any longer, just like a tree destroyed by lightning, then such an overcoming is called 'overcoming by destruction' " (Vis.M. XXII, 110f.).

(4) When, after the disappearing of the fetters at the entrance into the paths, the fetters, from the moment of fruition (phala) onwards, are forever extinct and stilled, such overcoming is called the 'overcoming by tranquillization'.

(5) "The 'overcoming by escape' is identical with the extinction and Nibbána" (Pts.M. I. 27). (App.).

pahána-pariññá; s. pariññá.

pain, feeling of: s. vedaná.

pakati-síla: 'natural or genuine morality', is distinct from those outward rules of conduct laid down for either laymen or monks. Those later are the so-called 'prescribed morality' (paññáttisíla). Cf. síla.

pakati-upanissaya: 'direct inducement'; s. paccaya.

palibodha: 'obstacles', is the term for the following things if they obstruct the monk in the strict practice of a subject of meditation: a crowded monastery, travelling, relatives, association with lay folk, gifts, pupils, repairs in the monastery, sickness, study, magical power. The latter, however, may become an obstacle only in developing insight (vipassaná, q.v.). See Vis.M. III, 29ff. - (App.)

pamsukúlik'anga: the 'vow to wear only robes made from picked-up rags', is one of the ascetic rules of purification; s. dhutanga.

pánátipátá veramaní: 'abstaining from the killing of living beings', is the first of the 5 moral rules binding upon all Buddhists; s. sikkhápada.

pañcadvárávajjana: 'advertence to the 5-sense-doors'; s. viññána-kicca.

pañca-síla: s. sikkhápada.

pañca-vokára-bhava: 'five-group existence', is a name for existence in the sensuous sphere (kámávacara), or in the fine-material sphere (rúpávacara, s. avacara), since all the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.) are found there. In the immaterial sphere (arúpávacara, s. avacara), however, only the 4 mental groups are found, and in the world of unconscious beings (asaññá-satta, q.v.) only the one corporeality group. Cf eka-vokára-bhava and catu-pañca-vokára-bhava; further s. avacara. - (App.: vokára).

pañhá-byákarana: 'answering questions'. "There are, o monks, 4 ways of answering questions: there are questions requiring a direct answer; questions requiring an explanation; questions to be answered by counter-questions; questions to be rejected (as wrongly put)." See D. 33; A. III, 68; A. IV, 42.

paññá: 'understanding, knowledge, wisdom, insight', comprises a very wide field. The specific Buddhist knowledge or wisdom, however, as part of the Noble Eightfold Path (magga, q.v.) to deliverance, is insight (vipassaná, q.v.), i.e. that intuitive knowledge which brings about the 4 stages of holiness and the realization of Nibbána (s. ariyapuggala), and which consists in the penetration of the impermanency (anicca, q.v.), misery (dukkha, s. sacca) and impersonality (anattá) of all forms of existence. Further details, s. under tilakkhana.

With regard to the condition of its arising one distinguishes 3 kinds of knowledge knowledge based on thinking (cintá-mayá-paññá), knowledge based on learning (suta-mayá-paññá), knowledge based on mental development (bhávaná-mayá-paññá) (D. 33).

" 'Based on thinking' is that knowledge which one has accquired through one's own thinking, without having learnt it from others. 'Based on learning' is that knowledge which one has heard from others and thus acquired through learning. 'Based on mental development' is that knowledge which one has acquired through mental development in this or that way, and which has reached the stage of full concentration" (appaná, q.v.) (Vis.M. XIV).

Wisdom is one of the 5 mental faculties (s. bala), one of the 3 kinds of training (sikkhá, q.v.), and one of the perfections (s. páramí) For further details, s. vipassaná, and the detailed exposition in Vis.M. XIV, 1-32.

paññatti -síla: 'prescribed morality', is a name for the disciplinary rules of the monk or layman prescribed by the Buddha, as distinguished from natural or genuine morality (pakati-síla; s. síla).

paññá-vimutti: 'deliverance through wisdom' (or understanding'), signifies, according to Com. to A.V, 142, the wisdom associated with the fruition of holiness (arahatta-phala). In Pug. 31 and similarly in M. 70, it is said: "A monk may not have reached in his own person the 8 liberations (=jhána, q.v.), but through his wisdom the cankers have come to extinction in him. Such a person is called wisdom-liberated" (paññá-vimutta). - Com. to Pug.: "He may be one of five persons: either a practiser of bare insight (sukkha-vipassako, q.v.), or one who has attained to Holiness after rising from one of the absorptions." See S. XII, 7().

The term is often linked with ceto-vimutti (q.v.), 'deliverance of mind'.

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